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Full text of "A third survey of domestic electronic digital computing systems Report #1115"

REPORT NO. 1115 
MARCH 1961 
IIf't i 
A THIRD SURVEY OF DOMESTIC 
ELECTRONIC 
DIGITAL 
'- Martin H. Weik 
COMPUTING SYSTEMS 
Tfp 
This report supersedes BRL Report No 
 1010 
Department of the Army Project No. 5B03-06-002 
Ordnance Management Structure Code No. 5010.11.812 
'.BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORIES 
RDEEN PROVING' GROUND, MARYLAND 
------------------------------<page break>-----------------------------
LINOOLN TX 0 
Lincoln Test-Exerfuental Ccputer Moel 0 
MANUFACTURER 
Lincoln borator 
Massachusetts Institute of Tecolo 
Photo by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of ehuology 
APPLICATIONS 
Manufacturer 
Lu experimental digital computer used to test ad- 
vance design techniques, including very large core 
storage and transistor circuitry. 
The research reported in this COmluting system 
description was sponsored Jointly by the A, Navy 
and Air Force under contract with the Massachuzetts 
Institute of Tecmology. 
PROGRANdYING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM 
Inter umber system Bt,ry 
B=ary digits/word 18 
Bary digits/instruction 18 
Instzuzctions/word 1 
Imtructions decoded 25 
Arithmetic system Ring-adder 
Instruction type One -ress 
Nuer range Not appropriate 
zree instructions are addressable and 1 is micro- 
progr-ble. 
ARITHMETIC UNIT 
Incl Stor cess Exclud Stor cess 
141crosec 141crosec 
utd time 6 1 
tt time 1,000 1,000 
Div time 1,000 1,000 
Construction 1,000 transistors 
Arithmetic mode Par e_lel 
Timing Synchronous 
Olderation Concurrent 
Computer performs 83,000 additions per second. 
Mnlitply and divide is progr-=,ed. 
STORAGE 
Media Words Digits Mlcrosec 
etic Core 65,56 18/wrd 3 
Flip-flop I 18/word 0.5 
Toggle Switch 16 18/word 3 
A parity bit is additional. Read-rewrite time is 
6 microseconds. 
LINCOLN TX-O 
624 
------------------------------<page break>-----------------------------
J 
LINCOLN TX 0 and TX 2 Memory Plane 
Photo by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
INPUT 
Media Speed 
Photo Reader 250 lines/sec 
Flexowriter Manual 
Toggle Switch Manual 
OUTPUT 
Media Speed 
Flexowriter l0 char/sec 
Display (CRT) 16 mdcrosec/spot 
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM 
'l'5b e s kd.O 
Tube types 3 
Crystal diodes 350 
Magnetic cores 1,245,773 
Transistors 3,500 
Separate cabinets 5 
Three major tube types, a mall number of others. 
Most tubes are used in the large memory. The tran- 
sistors are the Philco L-5122 Surface Barrier Tran- 
sistor. 
CHECKING FEATURES 
Parity check on memory systems. Mrginal checking 
is built in. 
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION 
Power, computer 10 Kw 
Volume, computer 1,000cu ft 
Area, ccputer 200 sq ft 
Capacity, air conditioner 40Tons 
Weight, computer 4,000 lbs 
Above figures are approximate.  conditioner is 
necessary for memory only. 
PRODUCTION RECORD 
Number produced 1 
Number in operation 3 
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS 
One picture shows close-up view of magnetic core 
memory plane and other picture shows random-access 
core mmory, frame of memory-core selotion-switch 
drivers, ccputer arithmetic element and control 
element, and computer operating console. 
I NSTALLAT I ONS 
Lincoln Laboratory 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Lexington 75, Massachusetts 
625 
LINCOLN TX 0 
------------------------------<page break>-----------------------------
LINOOLN TX 2 
Lincoln Test Experimental Computer 2 
MANUFACTURER. 
Lincoln Laboratory 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
$, 
APPLICATIONS 
Comicting system is ued for scientific reseeh 
for the suation, a-lysis, and control 
real time systems. 
PROGRAMMING AND 
Internal number system 
Binary digits/word 
Binary digits/instruction 
Instructions per word 
Instructions decoded 
Aritetic system 
Instruction type 
NUMERICAL SYSTEM 
36+1+1 
1 
Fixed point (Ones comple- 
ment binary) 
Indexable; Indirect 
dressing on all instructions 
Number range -(1 - 2 -35) to (1 - 2 '35 ) 
Instruction vord format 
i i 5 6 6 I 17 
metahold configs- op Index indirect base 
bit bit ration code regis- address address 
re E. n. ter bt 
Photo by Lincoln Laboratory, MIT 
All fixed programs are in toggle switch or plug- 
board storage. 
Automatic coding includes standard compiler, which 
provides full symbolic coding facilities. 
All four arithmetic registers and the exchange 
register are addressable as part of memory. There 
are sixty-four 18-bit parity-checked index registers. 
Indirect addressing canbe repeated indefinitely. 
33 program (instruction) counters are provided, 
only one of which is used at a time. 
Each in-out unit is associated with a program 
counter. Choice of program counter is determined by 
in-out unit by program, and by relative priority of 
program counters. 
Any instruction can specify a co_eiguration of the 
computer during the execution of the 'instruction. A 
36 bit operarid word can be divided into one 36, one 
27 and one 9, two 18, or four 9 bit subwords formed 
from the 9 bit quarters. The 9 bit quarters can be 
permuted among themselves. Any or all of the sub- 
words can be used sLmultaneously. For example, two 
18 bit multlplleations are done by one multiply in- 
struction in less time thau one 36 bit multiplication. 
LINCOLN TX 2 626 
------------------------------<page break>-----------------------------
One bit of each ccputer memory word is used for 
parity checking. The other is used as a tag bit for 
program debuing. 
ARITHMETIC UNIT 
Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access 
Microsee Microsee 
Add 4.8 1.4 
Mult 9.6 - 19.2 5 - 17 (9 bit-6 bit) 
Dlv 19.6 - 80.0 17.2 - 75 (9 bit-56 bit) 
Construction (Arithmetic unit only) 
Transi stors 8,800 
Arithmetic mode Parallel 
Timing Synchronous 
Operation Concurrent 
The following table lists the nuer of thousands 
of arithmetic operations of a given type which can 
be executed per sec. 
Word Length in Bits 6 27 18 9 
Arithmetic + 200 200 400 800 
Operation x 50 67 17 400 
= 13 17 48 200 
Photo by Lincoln Laboratory. MIT 
STORAGE' 
ReaJ 
No. of Write 
Media Words Time 
Magnetic Core 65, 556 6.4 
S mory 
Magnetic Core 4,096 4.4 
T Memory 
Toggle switch, 80 4.8 
plugboard, etc 
Magnetic Core 64 5.4 
Index Memory 
Magnetic Film 2 0.8 
Config. Memory 
Magnetic Tape 
0. Of 
Digits/Word Microsec 
56+1+1 3.4 
6+l+l 2.2 
56+1 2.6 
18 + I 0.6 
9+1 0.3 
No. of units that can be connected 
No. of lines /er linear inch 
Channels or tracks on the tape 
Blank tape separating each record 
Tape speed 
rranser rate 
Start time 
Stop time 
Physical properties of tape 
Width 
Length of reel 
Ccposition 
Tape reels are not changed. 
512 Units 
"330 Lines/inch 
l0 Tracks/tape 
0 Inches 
30-1000 Inches/see 
oo-3?, 5oo cars/sec 
250 Millisee 
10,000-250 Mil_lisec 
/1 Inches 
200 Feet 
lar te 189  
LIncOLN TX 2 
------------------------------<page break>-----------------------------
Fixed address system (like drum). Variable read 
speed. 
32 tape unit drives can be treated as 1010-bits of 
internal storage. 
14" NARTB reel. 
Recording channels are paired. Oue pair is used for 
timing marks, another for block marks, and the re- 
maining three for information. Three lines of infor- 
mation form the standard unit of information, a 9 
bit character. 
INPUT 
Media Speed 
Paper Tape 3000 7 bit lines/sec peak speed 
Speed is not constant. Accelerates slowly compared 
to line width. 
Keyboard l0 6 bit char/sec 
Lincoln Writer input 
Analog-DiEltal Converter 40,000 ll bit semples/sec 
Epsco Datrac converter 
Light pen/eye Manual 
Signals selected by operator 
Random No. Gert. 18,000 9 bit words/sec 
Radioactive source 
Miscellaneous Input 80 KC 
9 channel pulse input to computer from miscellan- 
eous devices. 
OUTPUT 
Media Speed 
Paper Tape 180 I bit lines/sec 
$oroban punch 
Xerox printer 20 lines/sec 
1300 c.bar/sec 
88 characters can be printed in 2 sizes. 6 bit 
vert. & 9 bit horiz. axes resolution. 
Typewriter l0 6 bit char/sec 
Lincoln Writer output 
CRT point display & Camera l0 KC - 40 KC 
lO bit resolution in both axes 
Miscellaneous output Up to 500 cycles 
9 channel switch for computer control of low rate 
devices 
Large board plotter 15 ln/sec slew speed 
PACE plotter 
Several input-output units can operate simultane- 
ously so long as the time required by all the units 
operating does not saturate the centra computer. 
Each unit has at most a single-line buffer; whenever 
a line of data needs to be transmitted to or rc the 
central computer the unit causes the central computer 
to use its associated program counter. The machine 
can compute while in-out units are operating. 
At peak rate, about 80,000 computer words/sec can 
be transferred into or out of the computer. 
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENI'IRE SYSTEM 
ri't,rpe 
Tubes 
6888 
z-2177 
Misc. Types 
Diode s 
CTP592 
LN625 
Misc. Types 
Quantity Use 
69 
312 
Clock pulse amplifiers 
S memory 
S memory 
1,488 
Input-output circuitry 
Input-output circuitry 
Input-output circuitry 
IJ3ICOI.,N TX 2 
628 
Transistors 
L5122 26,02 .  
L51 31,928 
2N501 32O 
2N557 1,016 
Misc. Types 2,227 
Magnetic Cores 
2,490,880 S memory 
155,648 T memory 
2,452 X memory 
All the vacuum tubes are used in the 65,536 ord 
memory and in the generation of the computer clock 
pulses. 
Resistor coupled transistor logic in the central 
computer operates at a 5 megapulse per second rate. 
Tln magnetic film memory contains 520 mnetic 
spots. 
CHECKING FEATU RES 
Checking features include a single bit odd parity 
check on all memories, a voltage margin check on all 
bias voltages, and a manual switching system selects 
circuits to be checked. A built-in syuc system 
facilitates locating machine errors. A library of 
test programs are used which check the operation of 
the computer and which attempt to induce errors. 
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION 
Power, computer 20 Kw 
Power, air conditioner 17 Kw 
Area, computer 
Area, air conditioner 
Room size, computer 
Room size, air conditioner 
Capacity, air conditioner 
25.6 KVA 0.8 pf 
1,500 sq ft 
350 sq ft 
54 x 29 
17 x 20 
25 Tons 
Cables run through overhead Wireways. Air condi- 
tioning ducts also runoverhead. An 8 ft high false 
ceiling is hung to cover these. Otherwise building 
is standard. Most power supplies are solid state. 
Principally required for memories. 
PRODUCTION RECORD 
Number produced to date 1 
Number in current operation 1 
One-of-a-kind research computer 
PERSONNEL REQU I RF. MENTS 
Problem originators are trained to use the compu- 
ter. Paper-tape preparation facilities and utility 
programs available to all computer users. 
Three engineering assistants and one technician 
are available to do routine maintenance and to make 
changes in the computer system. 
RELIAB I LITY, OPERATING EXPER I ENCE, 
AND TIME AVAILABILITY 
As a research machine, TX-2 operating experience 
is good but though data is kept on machine failures, 
no reliability figures have been computed. 
Basic circuits and components are similar to MIT's 
TX-o machine. 
------------------------------<page break>-----------------------------
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS 
Outstanding features include an operating thin 
magnetic film memory; 65,556 word magnetic core 
memory. Fixed address magnetic tape system. Multi- 
ple-sequence operation of ccputer and simultaneous 
operation of input-output units permits considerable 
flexibility in use of in-out units. Maximum execu- 
tion time for ny one arithmetic instruction can be 
reduced to one memory cycle time by overlapping in- 
structions and memories. 
Unique system advantages include multiple-sequence 
operation, configuration control over operands, thin 
magnetic film memory used in control element of cc- 
puter, and 64 index registers stored in random access 
magnetic core memory. 
The Lincoln Writer input-output unit permits con- 
siderable flexibility in co,-unicating with the 
computer. 
FUTURE PLANS 
Another 096 word magnetic core memory will be 
installed in order to increase opportunities for 
overlapping operation of memories. 
A magnetic tape unit will be installed which wLll 
be compatible with units used on many coaercial 
computers. 
Input-output units will be ackled as the needs 
develop. 
A new control console will replace the present 
console. 
INSTALLATIONS 
Lincoln Laboratory 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
P. O. Box 75 
Lexington 75, Mass. 
LINcoLN TX 2 
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